Review of Large City & Metropolitan Area power system development trends taking into account new generation, grid and information technologies
The number of Large Cities & Metropolitan Areas (MA&LC) is increasing both in size of population and in surface area. Accordingly, electricity consumption and power system (PS) load are growing and are concentrated in densely populated areas. In addition, MA&LC are important political and economic centres, and loss of load, or even load curtailment, can have a significant financial impact on companies and consumers. The safety and reliability of power systems must endure when facing today’s challenges such as RES integration, energy transition, capacity and power balancing adequacy, restoration and modernization of the networks, and the installation of new generating and power system equipment.